In the history of Korea and Mongolia one can find a similar period that the two countries went through. Korea was the reign of Mongolia, China, and Manchu during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing empires. In 1895, at the end of the Sino-Japanese War Korea gained full freedom, but soon it became a Japanese protectorate, and from 1910 it became a Japanese colony. It was liberated as a result of World War II, but it was divided into South Korea and North Korea by agreement between the great powers. 

During the Manchu Qing Empire, Mongolia was divided into Russia's Mongolia, Manchu's Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, and Dungar Khanate. This division continues further, and the Mongolians are now divided into Mongolia, Buriyat Republic, Tuva, and Inner Mongolia. Mongolia declared independence during the Qing Dynasty's fall, but soon lost its independence due to the refusal of approval by neighboring countries. Until 1990, it was a satellite state of the former Soviet Union.

The Korean War caused great damage to the entire Korean Peninsula between 1950 and 1053. After that the military regime reigned in South Korea for many years and just in 1990s it was reborn as a democratic country with open society. 

With the collapse of communism and the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia was liberated, choosing a free democracy system from 1990, and becoming inseparable part of the world's communities.

However, by the 1990s the two countries came to be in very situation.

Korea is a country that has made a exceptional soaring appearance on the international arena in the 20th century. In 1960s Korea's was a very poor country with GDP several times lower than that of Mongolia. There are 80 million Koreans worldwide, of which about 50 million live in Korea.

At the end of the World War II, the Korean peninsula was divided into two countries, and South Korean people suffered from a calamity of the Korean war that lasted for several years. Even today when the World got over the threat of Cold War, Korea is still under the danger of Cold War. In other words Korean people have been experiencing much sufferings.

The sufferings and pain awakened the people of this country. South Korea's land, cut off from the continent at the 38th parallel, took the form of an island, not a peninsula. Moreover, it is a highly dangerous island surrounded by enemies. The previous enemy Japan has become its closest economic partner. However, the social consciousness didn’t recognize Japanese people as partner, and today after two generations this attitude still cling. Koreans see Japanese if not enemies than as a rival. In the case of Mongolians, anti-Chinese view is a one of the great driving force to unify the Mongolian people. In the same way, anti-Japanese view of Koreans is one of the source of deriving energy. But there is a difference. Koreans have jealousy of if Japanese can do it why we can’t. Koreans hate to admit it directly, but they diligently copy Japanese technology without losing time. Especially for management. 

It’s Americans who saved Korean people from disaster during the Korean War. In fact, this may have affected Korea, making Korea the second largest Christian world in Asia after the Philippines. Originally, it was a country with a variety of religions, including Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and some indigenous beliefs. However, since the Korean War, Christianity has become very strong, and especially in the younger generation, there are many believers in Christianity alone. 

As an emerging country that has lived in poverty for a long time and been ruled by foreign countries many years, most of the people's thinking is not modernized compared to that of Europe, the United States, and Japan. The way of thinking of the lower-middle class and lower class is backwards, still keeping Asian manner, fraud and corruption are common. However, the upper-class mindset is rapidly westernizing and has already become a reliable trade and industry partner. That is why it has become one of the top ten economic powers in the world today. This was confirmed during the 1988 Olympics. Korea is now one of the most prestigious members of the most rich and developed countries in the world. 

Mongolians, who spent 70 years under the Soviet influence, had gain and also loss from it. Backward nomads from the Middle Age got a foothold in 20th century civilization with the help of the Russians. Especially since the 1970s, due to a conflct between Soviet Union and Chine, one of the unique forms of the Cold War, Mongolia has been able to receive several billions of rubles of aid and investment. As a result, Mongolia was able to become a civilized state. Unfortunately, the relationship between Russia and Mongolia over the past 70 years was not of the equal partners. It was more a relationship between a caregiver and a caretaker. There were no mutual interests between people, only interstate interests from an ideological or geopolitical point of view. 

Mongolia entered the 1990s in a completely different situation than Korea. This country who received 70 % of its GDP as a loan from the Soviet Union, was exhausted. Mongolia had no geographical and geopolitical location that could attract interest on international arena other than Russia and China, no minerals or market to attract foreign investment. It was a country with inaccurate government structure, with no mature political party with any regulation of ongoing migration nationwide. The structure of the administrative unit was so inefficient and therefore wasteful, the legal environment was not formed. The gap between rich and poor, gap between mentality of young and old, gap between educated and non educated, gap between urban and rural cultural levels were expanding. Mentality of the majority of the population was opposed to the reality of today's globalization, that is, they were hostile to the outside world, tend to be unbelieving. Mongolians were lacking or short of business mentality, not trustworthy and the skills of intellectuals and experts were poor. 

China and the Chinese, who have been enemies rather than nomads' partners for about 2,000 years, are neighbors who play a special role in Mongolia's present and future destiny. The Mongolians do not trust the Chinese and suspect they have a potential idea of trying to conquer them. They don't think of them as more than temporary trading partners, and they are looking at them as eternal enemies. 

As Mongolia became a free, democratic country, the international community reached out a helping hand. The Western world spent nearly $2 billion on Mongolia in the first decade. Since 1991, Japan has supported most of Mongolian government’s loans and aids. Just as Europe and the United States have no interest in Mongolia, Japan likewise has no interest in Mongolia. Japanese aid is more of sympathy and romantic view than practical. Many believed that it would be good for Japan's reputation to quickly restore Mongolia, a country with a population of only 2 million, and that was in the grip of Soviet Union and communism for decades. May be some influential Japanese thought that Mongolia, a countrywith few population and comparatively rich in natural resources compared to the population, and which connected to Japan through legends and history, could be a good and easy model for showing the achievements of Japan's foreign aid to the world. On the other hand, it is responsibility that the Japan undertook to help Asian countries. 

Unfortunately, Mongolians, both the government officials and the general public, recieved this support as a replacement of the role of the former Soviet Union. Perhaps the main reason for this was their lack of knowledge of the world, the mentality of being spoon-fed, and as a jealous society their prediction that the Japanese have a deep interest in Mongolia. 

The enormous amount of aid was squandered because te Japanese fail to understand the goal was too ambitious, on the other hand, the psychological habits of the Mongols, who has too ambitious goal but with a thinking peculiar mix of nomadic-socialism. In addition to this, the Japanese private sector had little involvement in this cooperation, as the cooperation of the Japanese with Mongolia was entirely between governments. In this respect, Japan's aid was similar in many ways to that of the former Soviet Union. Even it wasn’t their intention, in reality Japan has only taken the place of the Soviet Union. Looks like that a universal law of governmentinaccurate operation and intervention is effective in case of Japan. 

Japan will continue to support Mongolia within the bounds of EITI, ОЕСБ but its romanticism is already on the verge of frustration, despair and discouragement. When it comes to Japanese private sector investment, Japan and Mongolia are too different and incompatible partners for economic cooperation. Mongolian market will not attract Japanese small and medium-sized enterprises, and there is nothing in Mongolia that can attract the Japanese market. As a cooperative partner, the cultural differences between the two countries are too large. In other words Japan is superior for Mongolian producers. 

Mongolia was the third communist country to recognize the Republic of Korea. Following Hungary and Poland in 1989, the Batmönkh government took this courageous step. In fact, no one ever dreamed that Koreans and Mongolians would be so close to each other in such a short time. Despite the establishment of the formal diplomatic relations, neither government has made much effort to bring the relationship closer together. Until 1993-94, the two countries did not regard each other of much importance. Korea has been dilatory in the donor’s meetings. Visits between the two governments were rather formal. Perhaps due to the “North Korea” factor, South Korea opened an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia also formally had an embassy in Seoul in the apartment building. 

Then, the first illegal laborers went from Mongolia to Korea to work. Mongolian government did not send them and the Korean government didn’t express its willingness to receive them. This was a process that formed spontaneously and developed in the future further. In other words, the initiative came from the bottom, not from the top. 

Koreans are kind to the Mongolians and think that their ancestors are the same. This is how people behave everywhere when they do not like their neighbors. They search for their origin in non-neighborhoods and counter bad neighbors. While historically not true, the Mongolians find their origins in the snow-covered Himalayas and Tibet. That is why Koreans are very kind to Mongolians. In recent history the kings and nobles of the two countries used to exchange the queen and the bridesmaid. However, it raises doubts whether the two nations have the same origin in regard of scientific point of view. there are many scientific doubts about whether the origins are the same. 

Mongolians found the Korean market well-suited for them. The price here is relatively inexpensive, so it is incomparable to Japan and Europe. The quality of the products were relatively good, incomparable with that of China. Even for Mongolians it was illegal to work in Korea, Koreans were kind towards them. With the same complexion there was no discrimination. Korea was not as much law-complying country as Japan and America. So Korea was much suited to live for Mongolians who are good at patching up, maneuvering, and who have high survival instinct. As relations between the two countries expanded, the procedures for round-trip travel, commodity exchange and trade were further simplified. In 2003, the number of Mongolian workers working in Korea reached 20,000. Thus it became second largest outpost of Mongolian citizens staying abroad (after Kazakhstan), the fourth-largest outpost of concentration of Mongolian nationality (after Russia, China, and Mongolia), and the largest concentration of Mongolian nationalities of Mongolia overseas. There are few transactions and exchanges between governments, and private transactions dominate. The trade and exchange of goods between the two countries had been already exceeded 100 million dollars in 2000. It is estimated that during the year 2000 alone, Mongolians working in Korea traded goods and services worth $80 million between the two countries. 

By 2000, Korean made vehicles comprised most of Ulaanbaatar's vehicles. Koreans also became more active in doing business in Mongolia. They became very successful in such businesses like restaurants, laundries and car service, which are very traditional for them to administer in foreign countries. Korean community in Mongolia is the largest among other foreign communities. The number of Korean tourists visiting Mongolia is far higher than other countries. About 5,000 Koreans live and do business in Mongolia. In addition, about 3,000 North Koreans are working in Mongolia. In terms of frequency, air traffic between the two countries is likely to be second only to flights between China and Mongolia. 

For many young people today, Korea has become a role model and an idol. There is no TV series as successful as a Korean series. Is English or Korean the most common foreign language in Mongolia today (probably not Russian anymore)? Among young Mongolians, K-POP may be more popular than the American one. Koreans play a larger role in spreading Christianity in Mongolia than Americans. The fashion of young people their hairstyle is rather from Seoul, than from Paris. Design and style of the shops and restaurants in Ulaanbaatar are more similar to Korean ones than to Chinese. In other words, the Korean way of life became a model especially among younger generation. 

Some people may say bad things about it, but what's wrong with that? Globalization is everywhere and like it or not, we are moving towards globalization. There is no way to avoid globalization, so it's important to be consciously prepared. Thinking, reason, culture, information, finance, management, marketing, manufacturing, education, medicine and services are gaining more and more common trait all over the world. What’s wrong with becoming more closer with Korea, a country which we better understand, with whom we have a special affinity? 

Adam Smith, about 230 years ago, pointed out that the wealth of nation is not gold and silver taken away from others, but free trade and self-motivation. World history is the evidence to this. Countries with vast natural resources are becoming increasingly poor, but Germany, Japan and Korea, which were naked and resourceless after the war, created the greatest social wealth today. Wealth is not found, wealth is made. Wealth is not the gold we dig, but comes from free trade and the motivation of our brains. However, the Mongolians, who had followed the communist teachings and nomadic system for decades, cannot still get rid of mercantilism. When people have such wrong understanding of wealth, talking about the development of the country would be just empty words. Koreans are the ones who can be of the greatest help in changing our merchant spirit. From far away Korean land, that the goose can’t reach, Mongolian young keep to bring ways and thinking of making money. 

Researchers predict that in the near future, Northeast Asia will become the center of the world's most powerful development. The region, which encompasses Eastern Siberia, the Russian Far East, Northeast China, North and South Korea, and Japan, is expected to attract $30 trillion in investment over the next 30 years. Participating and engaging in this great integration is perhaps the only and only opportunity for Mongolia's future development. It will be easier for the next generation Mongolians, who have become close brothers and sisters to Korea, to enter into zoning and unity and strive for further development. 

Mongolia has had relations with Russia, China and Japan on state level over the past century. One can cite many examples to show how fragile and with no solid ground are such relations. On the other hand it would be impossible not to notice how vibrant and progressive are the friendship, relations and cooperation, Mongolia has established with the Korea, that have more human to human, family to family, between private sector character.

There are things in this world that have naturalness. All natural laws natural. However, all the rules, customs and laws that serve society can’t be natural. In particular, everything becomes unnatural when the government regulates, initiates, and leads. When there is unnaturalness there is no place to develop, persist and grow, and everything becomes too artificial, and it will sooner or later naturally 'die'. The most obvious example of this can be seen from the current situation of Koreans, the same ethnic group, who split 70-80 years ago and took a completely different path in the social system. The path, the Mongolia went through in the 20th century, was similar to that of North Korea. The naturalness in human society derives from individuals, families, private sectors. Motivation is natural only when it is in line with personal interests. The duty of the government is to encourage and support everything that arose out and took a form out of personal interests. Only countries with such a government naturally gain wealth. 

Finally, it’s worth to mention that the relationship between Mongolia and Korea has a long history. Koreans call themselves in various ways as Korea, Goryeo, and Joseon, but Mongolians from early on called them only “Solongos”. The etymology of this word is explained in various ways, but it is a common name for all Koreans residing in China, Russia, Kazakhstan, the United States, Korea, and Joseon. 

We have a history of military cooperation. Although the Mongol invaded Korea 5 times and inflicted great damage, there is a history of joint military operations between the two countries. During the Goryeo Dynasty, they were constantly attacked and persecuted by the Kidans. The last invasion of Kidan to Goryeo was in 1219. But they were chased by Genghis Khan's army. The Mongols who followed after them made a “visit” to Goryeo for the first time. The Mongol soldiers surrounded and destroyed the kidans hiding in Kato fortress and returned. The Goryeo people fought together with Mongols to suppress Kidans. 

In 1270, the military personals remaining on Ganghwa Island (Sambyulcho) revolted and attempted to topple Goryeo's new king. The rebellion was suppressed by the Mongol and Korean joint military action. During this battle, when Tamna kingdom was occupied, the Jeju island became a part of Korea after the fall of the Yuan Dynasty. 

It is believed that 8,000 Korean troops took part in Kublai's invasion of Japan in 1274. The second invasion of 1281 was, in fact, a combined operation of Mongols and Goryeo. 

In 1287, Nayan, descendant of Genghis Khan's younger brother conspired with Kaidu, descendant of Ogedei, rebelled against the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai, who was too old to ride a horse on long way war. Still, he decided to lead his army himself, and reached Buir Lake. There he defeated Nayan's army and moved to the Hangai Mountains to attack Kaidu. And in 1292, the combined forces of Mongols and Korea completely suppressed the rebellion. 

Today, there are about 3,500 Korean-Mongolian mixed families. This is a number since 1990. But it is not new in the historical sense. In 1259, the king of Goryeo, Wonjong[i] went to China and met Kublai Khan. Kublai made him king of Korea, and from this time on, Korea became a vassal state of the Yuan Dynasty. Also, the son of King Wonjong, King Chungnyeoll[ii], married Kublai's daughter, the Imperial Princess Jeguk[iii] . She came to Korea with her husband and she was called Queen Inmyeong (仁明王后). From this family, King Chungseon (忠宣王, Ijilbökh)[iv], a great nobleman of the Yuan Dynasty and the 28th king of Goryeo, was born. From this time on, Mongols and Koreans actively exchanged brides and grooms. After Kublai, most of the Yuan Dynasty emperors had Korean wives. Goryeo's King Gongmin[v] married a Mongolian woman whose Mongolian name was called Budshir, who became Queen Noguk.[vi] She was the daughter of Kublai Khan's grandson, Princess Roh. Togon Temur, the last great Khan of the Yuan Dynasty, also had a Korean wife, and she was Empress Gi (奇皇 后)[vii]. She is the mother of Ayushridara Khan.

[i] Wonjong (1219-1274). Recognizing that Korea, the king of the Goryeo Dynasty, will become the reign of the Yuan Dynasty, he received support according to the results of the conversation with Kublai Khan.

[ii] King Chungryul (1236-1308). Wonjong's son inherited the throne (1374-1308)

[iii] The Imperial Princess (1259-1297). Queen of Korea, daughter of Kublai Khan.

[iv] Isillburg (1275-1325). King Chungseon, the 28th king of Goryeo (1308-1313)

[v] King Kongmin (1330-1374). King Goryeo (1351-1374)

[vi] Princess Noguk (?-1365). Her Mongolian name is Bod Sur. Goryeo queen.

[vii] Empress Gi (1315-1369). Mongolian name is Ölziiqutug, Empress Yuan Dynasty, wife of Togon Temur Khan and mother of Ayoshiridara Khan.